Mechanical recanalization for clot occlusion of venous access ports: experimental study using ports with clot occlusion



To test the hypothesis that mechanical injection of saline is safe and effective in restoring patency of totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) with clot occlusion. We devised an experimental port model for the evaluation of mechanical TIVAP recanalization prior to its clinical application.

Materials and methods

The clot TIVAP occlusion model was constructed by filling the catheter with swine blood and incubating it at 37.5°C. The model was incubated for different lengths of time ranging from 1 day to 7 days. Each incubation time point included 20 ports. Total catheter occlusion of the TIVAPs was assessed with a 10-mL saline syringe equipped with a non-coring needle. Occlusion was defined as no passage of saline through the catheter when it was aspirated and infused gently with the 10-mL saline syringe. Pressure was evaluated during recanalization with an indeflator. Histological examination was performed on the clot obtained during recanalization.


Among the 140 total experimental ports, 65 occlusions (46.4%) were detected. Of these 65 occlusions, 56 (86.1%) were recanalized by mechanical saline pressure via the indeflator. The indeflator pressure ranged from 29 pound per square-inch (psi) to 265 psi at mechanical catheter recanalization (mean: 110 psi). Histologically, all specimens from the model ports exhibited a similar appearance; specifically, erythrocytes, cells, and fibrin were evenly scattered throughout the clot.


Our data indicate that it is feasible to generate a TIVAP clot occlusion model with swine blood. Moreover, mechanical recanalization was suitable for resolving occluded catheters without thrombolytic agents.

J Vasc Access 2017; 18(2): 158 - 162




Myung Gyu Song, Tae-Seok Seo, Baek-hui Kim, Jeong Ho Kim

Article History


Financial support: No grants or funding have been received for this study.
Conflict of interest: None of the authors has financial interest related to this study to disclose.

This article is available as full text PDF.

  • If you are a Subscriber, please log in now.

  • Article price: Eur 36,00
  • You will be granted access to the article for 72 hours and you will be able to download any format (PDF or ePUB). The article will be available in your login area under "My PayPerView". You will need to register a new account (unless you already own an account with this journal), and you will be guided through our online shop. Online purchases are paid by Credit Card through PayPal.
  • If you are not a Subscriber you may:
  • Subscribe to this journal
  • Unlimited access to all our archives, 24 hour a day, every day of the week.



  • Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul - Korea
  • Department of Pathology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul - Korea
  • Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon - Korea

Article usage statistics

The blue line displays unique views in the time frame indicated.
The yellow line displays unique downloads.
Views and downloads are counted only once per session.

No supplementary material is available for this article.